- dreux , southwest of Paris. Thus, for example, Solomon b. Judah "the Saint" mentioned in the first edition of the Judaica as being at Dreux was actually of Rouen. As a result, Rouen is now known to have been the seat of a much more important Jewish community than was previously assumed. During the 12th century, the Jews of Rouen were placed under the authority of a local bailiff rather than under the commissioner of the Jews of Normandy, who may have been peter of Cluny mentioned in a number of documents as the "Jewish king of Rouen." A number of Jews from London owned houses in the Jewish quarter of Rouen, while some Jews of Rouen had debtors in England. Nevertheless, Rouen's Jews were engaged in moneylending to a lesser extent than the Jews of England. The Jewish quarter, the "Rue as Gyeus," became the modern Rue des Juifs. One house at the beginning of the street is said to have served as a synagogue and another as the school. The cemetery, situated outside the town, was referred to as Mont-aux-Juifs. Rouen's return to French sovereignty in the 12th century appears to have been followed by a decline in the Jewish community, as evidenced by its modest contribution to the poll tax levied on the Jews of Normandy. A new and even smaller community was reestablished in Rouen after 1359. (Its existence is confirmed at the latest in about 1380.) After the "final" expulsion of Jews from France in 1394, there were no Jews in the city until the arrival of some marranos at the close of the 16th century. The fate of the community remained uncertain throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1605, 40 marrano jews were living in Rouen, but by 1609 they had dispersed. A few years later a new wave of Marranos followed them. In the new community the family of Gonçalo Pinto Delgado (father of the poet Joâo Pinto Delgado ) played a principal role. In addition to merchants, the community also included several physicians. Although outwardly practicing Christian observances, the Jewish community of Rouen owned its own cemetery. From 1632, however, the so-called "Portuguese merchants" were accused of "Judaizing." In spite of several severe judgments against them, other Marranos continued to arrive in Rouen. In 1648 alone 20 new families settled in the city. Few Jews arriving in Rouen in the 17th century remained there, however. Those who came at the beginning of the 17th century eventually emigrated to Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Hamburg; while those arriving in the second half of the century left to join the new Jewish community in London. By the early 18th century the Marrano community had all but disappeared. In its place, a new Jewish community was established in mid-century, composed almost entirely of Alsatian Jews, who owned a cemetery from at least 1786. Another community was formed immediately after the French Revolution. (Bernhard Blumenkranz and Norman Golb / David Weinberg (2nd ed.) The Rouen synagogue, destroyed during the bombardment in 1940, was rebuilt by the small community in 1950. The community grew to 500 members in 1960 and, after the influx of Jews from North Africa, numbered around 1,000 in 1971. In 1987, it was estimated that there were 1,200 Jews in the city. Rouen is the seat of a rabbinate. (Georges Levitte) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross, Gal Jud, 622ff.; B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chrétiens (1960), 136; H.G. Richardson, English Jewry under Angevin Kings (1960), index; C. de Beaurepaire, in: Bulletin de la commission des antiquités de la Seine-Inférieure, 9 (1891/3), 196–200; 12 (1900/2), 89; I.S. Revah, in: Mélanges Isidore Lévy (1953), 539–52; C. Roth, in: REJ, 88 (1929), 113–55; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer (1966), 266; N. Golb, Toldot ha-Yahudim be-Ir Rouen bimei ha-Beinayim (History and Culture of the Jews of Medieval Rouen, 1976); idem, in: Archaeology, 30 (1977), 314–5; idem, in: Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research (1980), 100–1; B. Blumenkranz, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1976), 663–7. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Guide du judaîsme français (1987), 39.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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Rouen — Rouen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Rouen — (spr. ruāng), Hauptstadt des franz. Depart. Niederseine, ehemalige Hauptstadt der Normandie, liegt unter 49°26´ nördl. Br. und 1°6´ östl. L., 5 m ü. M., am rechten Ufer der Seine, die hier, 130 km vom Meere, noch Ebbe und Flut aufweist, und ist… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
ROUEN — ROUE L’ancienne capitale des ducs de Normandie doit sa richesse et sa prospérité à sa position à l’embouchure de la Seine. Son port maritime et fluvial a été l’un des relais les plus importants pour le commerce entre la France et l’Angleterre.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
rouen — ROUEN, Ville capitale de Normandie, Rothomagus, Ciuitas est Archiepiscopalis. Cheval Rouen … Thresor de la langue françoyse
Rouen — (spr. Ruang), 1) Arrondissement im französischen Departement Niederseine; 24,8 QM., 256,500 Ew., 10 Cantone; 2) Hauptstadt desselben u. des Departements, an der Aubette, dem Robec u. dem rechten Ufer der Seine u. an der Eisenbahn von Paris nach… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Rouen — (spr. ruáng), das röm. Rotomagus, Hauptstadt der ehemal. Normandie, jetzt des Dep. Seine Inférieure, an der Seine, (1901) 116.316 E., Kathedrale Notre Dame (16. Jahrh., zwei Türme, 156 m hohe eiserne Pyramide, Königsgräber), Abteikirche St. Quen… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Rouen — Rouen. Eine von Anhöhen umgrenzte Ebene an der Seine, über welche hier eine schöne Schiffbrücke führt, 11,000 Häuser, 6 Vorstädte und 92,000, meist von Handel und Manufacturen lebende Einw., ein Erzbischof, ein königl. Gerichtshof, bedeutende… … Damen Conversations Lexikon
Rouen — (Ruang), das gallisch röm. Rotomagus, an der Seine, ehemalige Hauptstadt der Normandie, jetzt des Departem. der Niederseine, eine Stadt, welche noch die Bauart des Mittelalters wie wenige andere zeigt, reich an schönen goth. Gebäuden (Kathedrale … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Rouen — → Ruan o Ruán … Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Rouen — [ro͞o än′; ] Fr [ rwän] city & port in NW France, on the Seine: pop. 103,000 … English World dictionary